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Loei province Agriculture -  Rice farming  -  Rice Cultivation Process  
   
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 Description:   Rice cultivation (Traditional method in the North-East of Thailand)

[01] Plowing - Initial plowing is done to in cooperate weeds and crop residues to soil. The moisture content of the soil determines the time of tillage. The tillage is done when the soil has the correct water contact and is friable for plowing or rotovating and harrowing. It is generally done at the star of the raining season around mid-May to Mid-July in the northeast of Thailand. It is done 1 to 3 weeks before the secondary tillage.

[02] Harrowing - The objective of the secondary tillage or harrowing is to break the big clumps of soil into small clumps, to incorporate the weeds germinated late and remaining crop residues to the soil and to level the field, a prerequisite for good water and crop management. This is done in two directions across by using two-wheel tractor or animals. Secondary tillage involves clearing, repairing and replastering of bunts and done 1-10 days before crop establishment.

[03] Seeding - Crop establishment can be defined as the establishment of seeds or seedlings in the field in order to grow it as a crop. Method of establishment of rice can be broadly divided into 2 methods, direct sowing of pre germinated or ungerminated seeds then transplanting of seedlings.
The rice is soaked in water during 1 to 3 days before to be spread at high density on the prepared field surface (30 to 40kg per ha to be planted). This field is called in Thai “Locka”. The rice is grown on this fields flooded with 3 to 5 cm of water. It takes around 3 weeks before to be transplanted.

[04] Seedling collect - The germinated rice, called seedlings, having now a high of 30 to 40cm is collected by hand and grouped in bunches of around 100 pieces. It is tight with a very small bamboo straw prepared at the start of the season by the farmer. Excess water and mud are removed by knocking the collected seedlings on either the foot of the farmer or on a wooden stick planted in the field. Prior to be tighten the seedlings are leveled on a flat/hard surface.

[05[ Seedling transportation - Bunches are transferred to the transplanting field (Paddy fields) using a long wooden stick carried on the shoulder of the farmer as there is no other ways to move from the growing field (“Locka”) to the transplanting field due to the narrow paths and flooded fields.

[06] Transplanting - Transplanting is done by hand by pushing the seedling at a depth of around 5 cm  into the mud field covered by around 10cm of water and at a distance of around 20~25cm on each direction.

[07] Direct seeding - Direct seedling is more and more practiced as it requires much less manpower compared to the transplanting method. The yields are also comparable with transplanted rice if crop is properly managed.
The seed paddy requirement is 20-30 kg/ha. Since the root system is not damaged there is no transplanting shock and seedlings are quickly established in the field. This method saves seed paddy and labor cost for 50% compared to transplanting. It also produces high number of tillers and the harvest can be obtained 7-8 days earlier

[08] Paddy Fields - The paddy fields must have a strict water management especially in the first weeks after transplanting to avoid the fresh seedling to be flooded by heavy rains for example of to die due to a dry field, this is done by pumping excess water from to fields or pumping water from a water reservoir to the fields.
 
[09] Fertilizer - Fertilizer is added around 1 week after transplanting. 
 
 
 Province   Loei  Direction:      
 District   Loei    
 City   Loei  Comments:    Official Web:    
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SUB-SITES PICTURES:    
01-Plowing Rice Field 02-Harrowing Rice Field 03-Paddy Seed Bed
04-Rice shoots collecting 05-Transportation Rice shoots 06-Transplanting Rice shoots
07-Direct sowing Field 08-Rice Paddy Fields 09-Adding Fertilizer
     

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